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Combustion & systèmes réactifs


ICARE has equipments available for measuring fundamental parameters and providing experimental databases for model validations. Several ‘ideal’ complementary reactors are currently used with appropriate diagnostics :

  • Heated spherical combustion bombs for the measurement of fundamental burning velocities of gaseous and liquid fuels at high pressures by fast speed ombroscopy imaging and combustion overpressure using piezo-electric pressure transducers. The spherical bombs used at ICARE have characteristics not entirely available for similar equipments in France : maximum heating temperature of 210°C, high operating pressure (50 bars), and large internal volume (56 L) allowing reliable laminar combustion properties measurements (laminar flame speeds, Markstein lengths, maximum combustion overpressure).
  • Burners
    • A unique high pressure counter-flow burner facility (maximum chamber pressure 5MPa) is recently implemented, allowing, as a first step, the stabilisation of laminar premixed counter flow flames up to 1MPa (as well as partially premixed or diffusion flames,), with optical access for laser diagnostics (such as Laser Induced Fluorescence, Emission, Absorption, Raman spectroscopy, Cavity Ring Down Spectroscopy) for major and minor chemical species, radicals, pollutants and temperature measurements.
    • Another high pressure chamber (up to 1.0 MPa) is devoted to the turbulent studies, premixed or non-premixed flames, stabilized on a Bunsen type burner. Laser diagnostics (such as Rayleigh scattering imaging, PIV, LDA) allow fine characterization of these flames.
    • Flat flame burner with probe sampling for characterization and measurement of stable chemical species by gas phase chromatography (CPG-FID-TCD) and FTIR.
  • Pressurized jet stirred reactors (JSR) that can operate over an extended range of temperature (500-1500 K, covering both low and high temperature oxidation regimes), pressure (0.1- 4.0 MPa), and equivalence ratio (0.02-4). This is a unique and powerful system allowing operation at pressures as high as those encountered in gas turbines. Chemical analyses of stable species are performed using complementary techniques such as FTIR, GC-MS-FIDTCD, trap and HPLC.
  • High pressure shock tubes (ST) that can operate up to ca. 5000 K. They are equipped with complementary diagnostics such as ARAS, Laser Scattering/Extinction, UV and IR absorption, detection of OH* and CH* emission. A unique sampling system has been developed to characterize the major oxidation products behind reflected shock waves. ICARE has a large ensemble of shock tubes for chemical kinetic studies and its ST-ARAS set-up is unique in France whereas only few are operating worldwide.
  • A unique setup dedicated to the study of flame acceleration, ENACCEF, has been developed in our laboratory. With its very large volume (850 l), this vessel can be equipped with obstacles of different shapes and blockage ratios to study the different regimes a flame can undergo, from slow deflagration to high speed flames reaching the choked regime. It is highly instrumented with several photomultiplier tubes (16), pressure transducers (9), sampling points (12). The recording of the flame is performed using a high speed imaging system and the velocity of the fresh gases ahead of the flame can be derived using a high speed PIV system. Two phase flows can also be studied since ENACCEF is equipped with spraying systems and hence study the effect of water mist on the mitigation of the combustion.
  • Two different experimental setups are dedicated to the particles and droplets studies. The electrodynamic levitator setup allows one to suspend single metal particles of initial diameters in the range 30_150 μm. The levitator is placed inside a hermetic chamber equipped with a particle injection system, which permits experiments in different atmospheres and pressures (up to 6 MPa). The droplet apparatus is composed of a furnace which can operate over an extended range of temperature (300 - 1200 K), of a droplet system (production, support, and transport), the whole of these facilities is inserted in a closed chamber allowing experiments in various atmospheres.